With easy access via online storefronts and similar sources, terrorists and rebels and even government forces from Iraq and Syria to Ukraine’s breakaway Donbass region have been increasingly using small drones. With little training, insurgents can use these tiny flying machines to spy on their opponents, direct artillery strikes, or even possible attack targets directly.
Now, the U.S. Army is warning troops to be on the lookout for these specific threats in a new manual.
These two types of pilotless aircraft are “the greatest challenges for Army forces,” the manual declares. “The smaller platform… provides the user with the ability to meet reconnaissance, surveillance, and information collection requirements without being noticed.”
The Pentagon describes the first category as remote control aircraft generally weighing fewer than 20 pounds that routinely fly below 1,200 feet. The next level up are craft up to 55 pounds that can travel up to 3,500 feet in the air. Troops shouldn’t expect drones in either group to fly faster than 300 miles per hour.
The Army generally uses the smallest group to describe drones such as the hand-launched Raven. American soldiers use these small aircraft to scout ahead and look for possible ambushes or other hazards.
The manual says these drones present four basic types of threats, from spying to indirect and direct attacks to swarming friendly troops. The possibility of enemy fighters snooping on American positions is a very real concern.
By 2014 in Syria, both rebels and militias loyal to Pres. Bashar Al Assad were flying relatively cheap quad- and hexacopters to snoop on each other. The same year, Ukrainian troops strapped cameras to a number of quadcopters and remote control planes to try and find Russian-backed rebels in the country’s restive eastern regions.
On top of traditional surveillance, the Army air defense manual points out that enemy fighters could use the drones to watch troops approach a roadside bomb or other hazard. With the remote controlled camera overhead, they could set off these improvised explosives at the best possible moment without having to be nearby. Islamic State terrorists have also recorded suicide bomb attacks with drones for propaganda purposes.
But the Army is worried that militants could turn these amateur flying spooks into remote controlled bombs, too. In June, a spokesman for the Pentagon’s Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency told Bloomberg that Islamic State had already done just that in Iraq.
On Aug. 9, Iranian-supported Lebanese Hezbollah militants fighting on behalf of Assad’s regime in Syria posted a video online — seen above — showing what appeared to be a quadcopter dropping bomblets on rebels in the besieged city of Aleppo.
While hobby drones can’t carry much, they could potentially lug a small amount of explosive or toxic chemicals very close to their target. The pilotless craft might then either drop the deadly payload or simply smash into its intended victims.
A small drone “has the ability to carry the improvised explosive device or become the improvised explosive device,” the Army handbook explained. “The probability [of success] increases with the size of the target and whether the target is stationary or in motion.”
Perhaps most worrying is the potential of a “swarm attack” involving multiple pilotless craft. A group of drones could easily confuse, distract, or otherwise endanger American troops.
“They can be preprogrammed or remotely piloted as an expendable asset at relatively low cost,” the publication says. “The swarm itself can be used to disrupt our own reconnaissance efforts or overwhelm an entry control point.”
In July, Peter W. Singer, author of Ghost Fleet, tweeted out a picture an American soldier had sent him of an “anti-drone rifle” at a base in Iraq. For those troops, the Army’s new manual is just a confirmation of what they already know — America’s drone monopoly is over.
Full article: Enemy drone swarms are coming for American troops, Army warns (The Week)