The KGB Ran the World’s Largest Programme for Individual Behaviour Modification

Just forty years ago this week, on 31 October 1975, KGB chairman Yurii Andropov made a “top secret” report to the members of the Central Committee of the ruling Soviet Communist Party. Andropov had a simple message: In the war on anti-Soviet activity, he said, we are winning.

Andropov began by pointing to a steep decline in the number of prosecutions for state crimes such as treason and anti-Soviet agitation—from more than 1,300 a year at the end of the 1950s to less than half that number in the early 1970s. But what factors were driving this success? Andropov proposed four explanations:

The further reinforcement of the moral-political unity of our society; the growth of political consciousness of Soviet people; the correct penal policy of the Soviet state; and the dominant role of preventive-warning work to deter criminality (my emphasis).

The KGB programme of preventive warnings is the subject of a new paper I will present to a conference in November called If You Do Not Change Your Behaviour: Managing Threats to State Security in Lithuania under Soviet Rule. The paper is based on microfilm records held by the Hoover Institution’s Library & Archives. In the paper, I report work in progress on preventive warnings and their history, application, scope, and effectiveness. I suggest that the KGB’s use of preventive warnings was “the largest and most effective programme for personally targeted behaviour modification anywhere in the world at that time outside school and college.”

What explains the effectiveness of a KGB preventive warning? In the paper I suggest that fear was the key. The tone of the preventive warning was intended to be friendly, even helpful. But the common element at the core of every warning discussion was an unambiguous threat: “If you do not change your behavioiur, there will be more serious consequences.” Every person who received such a warning knew that the KGB had unlimited authority to translate these words into actions that could affect every aspect of the subject’s life and their family members’ lives, from residence and employment to education, promotion, the chance to travel abroad, and personal liberty.

Full article: The KGB Ran the World’s Largest Programme for Individual Behaviour Modification (Mark Harrison)

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